Verb Aspects

Russian Verb Aspects


Russian language has three Tenses: Present, Past and Future. Verb Aspects help to keep them simple.

In Russian there are only two verbal aspects: Imperfective and Perfective.



Usage of Russian Perfective and Imperfective Aspects


                      IMPERFECTIVE ASPECT
   PASTМа́ша чита́ла кни́гуMasha was reading/read a book
(unfinished action)
   PRESENTМа́ша чита́ет кни́гу ка́ждый ве́черMasha is reading/reads a book every evening
(habitual action)
   FUTUREМа́ша бу́дет чита́ть кни́гуMasha will be reading/will read a book
(plan to do the action)


Russian Imperfective aspect is used for:

1. Repeated or unfinished actions.

2. Ongoing actions or actions that are being done right now.

3. Actions that do not emphasize the result.                                     


Imperfective verb forms can be made from perfective verbs with the help of

   Suffixes
  ыва  вбро́сить =>  вбра́сывать (to throw in)
  ива  взби́ть => взбива́ть (to whip)
  ва  накле́ить => накле́ивать (to stick)
  а  заключи́ть => заключа́ть (to conclude)


                      PERFECTIVE ASPECT
   PASTМа́ша прочита́ла кни́гуMasha has read a book
(finished action)
   PRESENT-
   FUTUREМа́ша прочита́ет кни́гуMasha will have read a book
(plan to do the action)


Russian Perfective aspect is used for:

1. Actions that already finished or happened

2. Plan to complete an action


Perfective verb forms can be made from imperfective verbs with the help of:

  Accentотреза́ть => отре́зать (to cut)
 Prefixе́хать => прие́хать (go by transpot)
де́лать => сде́лать (to do)

 Suffixотвеча́ть => отве́тить (to answer)
пры́гать => пры́гнуть (to jump)
  Stem changeговори́ть => сказа́ть (to talk)


Tip: In the dictionaries there are usually both versions of the verb (imperfective and perfective)


Related:

Present Tense

Past Tense

Future Tense

Verbs of Motion

Reflexive Verbs

Conjugated Verbs

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