Present Tense

Russian Verbs: Present Tense


Verbs in Russian Present Tense are used to describe: simple statements, facts, ongoing or habitual actions.

In English, there are four present tenses. In Russian they are all combined into one.

Tip: The use of Russian Present Tense depends of the context




   

Usage of Russian verbs in Present Tense


Russian verbs are conjugated by changing the ending.

Let's analyze our example:  Ма́ша чита́ет.

Ма́ша - name of the person.

чита́ет - cojugated verb form "чита́ть" (to read).


Using Present Tense on the verb "читать" (infinitive form)

1. Determine the verb conjugation group (1st or 2nd) according to its ending. Verb "чита́тьends in 
"ать", so it belongs to the 1st conjugation group.

2. Determine the point of view: First, Second or Third Person, Singular or Plural. Masha is the 3d person.

3. Remove "ть" from infinitive verb form. чита́ -> ть

4. Add the appropriate ending form based on the rules below. Чита́ть changes to чита́ет.



Russian Verbs: Present Tense conjugation rules


1st Conjugation group - remove "ть" from the infinitive form and add the appropriate ending.

2nd Conjugation group - remove the three last letters "ить" or "еть" and add the appropriate ending.


1st CONJUGATION GROUP2nd CONJUGATION GROUP
Infinitiveчита́ть
(to read)
меня́ть
(to change)
говори́ть
(to speak)
смотре́ть
(to watch)
учи́ть
(to learn)
Я - Iчита́юменя́юговорю́смотрю́учу́
Ты - You (informal)чита́ешьменя́ешьговори́шьсмо́тришьу́чишь
Он - Heчита́етменя́етговори́тсмо́триту́чит
Оно́ - It
Она́ - She
Мы - Weчита́емменя́емговори́мсмо́триму́чим
Вы - You (formal/pl)чита́етеменя́етеговори́тесмо́тритеу́чите
Они́ - Theyчита́ютменя́ютговоря́тсмо́тряту́чат



Related:

Russian conjugated verbs



Note that the 2nd Conjugation group has another verb (учи́ть) which ends in "ить", however it has a different conjugation for the 1st person and plural form. It happens when the verb is under these spelling rules


After г, ж, к, ч, ц, х, ш, щ 

write у instead of ю (Я учу́)

write а instead of я (Они у́чат)



Russian Irregular verbs


Russian irregular verbs have the same ending as regular, but different conjugation forms. 

It's easy to predict the ending of an irregular verb, if you know its stem.

Let's analyze verb люби́ть (to love)

ить - is the ending

люб - is the stem

Look at the last letter of the stem and use the rules below to make the correct conjugation.

"б" - is the last letter of in the stem. Accorduing to the rules, "б" becomes "бл"

Я люблю́ - correct

Я любю - incorrect



Infinitive formStem final consonantBecomes
Conjugated 1st form
ви́деть (to see)г, д, зжЯ ви́жу́
гости́ть (to guest)ст, скщЯ гощу́
писа́ть (to write)с, хшЯ пишу́
шути́ть (to joke)к, тчЯ шучу́
люби́ть (to love)бблЯ люблю́
дави́ть (to press)ввлЯ давлю́
корми́ть (to feed)ммлЯ кормлю́
копи́ть (to save/save up)пплЯ коплю́


Note that consonant change rules apply to certain verb forms:


1st Conjugation Group
2nd Conjugation Group
all persons of the verbs with ending "ать"1st person (singular) verbs
ты, он, мы, вы (four persons)  of the verbs ending "чь"


Note: You have to memorize the conjugation group of each Verb of Motion. The conjugation form also could  be different.

Example: Стоя́ть - to stand. It ends in ять. The verb is supposed to be in the 1st Conjugation group, however it conjugates according to the 2nd Conjugation group.



стоя́ть 
(to stand)
бежа́ть
(to run)
Я - Iстою́бегу́
Ты - You (informal)стои́шьбежи́шь
Он - Heстои́тбежи́т
Оно́ - it
Она́ - She
Мы - We строи́мбежи́м
Вы - You (formal/pl)стои́тебежи́те
Они́ - Theyстоя́тбегу́т



Related:

Verbs of Motion



Remember! Some irregular verbs have different infinitive and conjugation forms!
Infinitiveбри́ть
(to shave)
жи́ть
(to live)
рисова́ть
(to draw)
дава́ть
(to give)
танцева́ть
(to dance)
Я - Iбре́юживу́рису́юдаютанцу́ю
Ты - You (informal)бре́ешьживёшьрису́ешьдаёшьтанцу́ешь
Он - Heбре́етживётрису́етдаёттанцу́ет
Оно́ - It
Она́ - She
Мы - Weбре́емживёмрису́емдаёмтанцу́ем
Вы - You (formal/pl)бре́етеживётерису́етедаётетанцу́ете
Они́ - Theyбре́ютживу́трису́ютдаю́ттанцу́ют



Related:

Past Tense

Future Tense

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