Spelling Rules

Russian spelling rules


Russian spelling rules show combinations of letters that are not permitted in Russian.

They explain many irregular forms in the declensions of Russian nouns, pronouns, adjectives and in verb conjugations.



А-Я


Instead of "Я" always write "А" after letters: Г, К, Х, Ж, Ч, Ш, Щ, Ц


Examples:


доро́га [doroga] -  road

река́ [reka] - river

эпо́ха [epokha] - age

прода́жа [prodazha] - sale

ту́ча [tucha] - cloud

ва́ша [vasha] - your(s)

тёща [teshcha] - mother-in-law

ку́рица [kuritsa] - chicken



Е-О


Instead of unstressed "О" always write "E" after letters: Ж, Ч, Ш, Щ, Ц


Examples:


жена́ [zhena] - wife

пчела́ [pchela] - bee

дёшево [dyoshevo] - cheap

щено́к [shchenok] - puppy

се́рдце [sertse] - heart


Related: 

Russian adjectives



И-Ы


Instead of "Ы" always write "И" after letters: Г, К, Х, Ж, Ч, Ш, Щ 


Examples:


сапоги́ [sapogi] - boots

жа́ркий [zharkiy] - hot

духи́ [dukhi] - perfume

жить [zhit'] - to live

мячи́ [myachi] - balls

суши́ть [sushit'] - to dry

же́нщина [zhenshchina] - woman



У-Ю


Instead of "Ю" always write "У" after letters: Г, К, Х, Ж, Ч, Ш, Щ, Ц 


Examples:


лягу́шка [lyagushka] - frog

купе́ [kupe] - coupe

худо́й [khudoy] - thin

журна́л [zhurnal] - magazine

чу́до [chudo] - miracle

шум [shum] - noise

ощуща́ть [oshushat'] - to sense

цуна́ми [tsunami] - tsunami



Consonant mutation


When a word is changing it's ending, sometimes the last consonants are changed too. It happens to make pronunciation easier.


Note: consonant mutation rules can be applied to: declined nouns, pronouns, adjectives and verb conjugation forms


Consonant mutation
дж
з
г
тч
ц
к
сш
х
стщ
ск

 

Examples:


буди́ть (to wake up) -> я бужу́

сказа́ть (to say) -> я скажу

писа́ть (to write) -> я пишу́

шепта́ть (to whisper) - я шепчу́

маха́ть (to wave) - я машу́

иска́ть (to seek) - я ищу́

пла́кать (to cry) - я пла́чу


Related:

Russian alphabet

Russian verbs




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