Adjectives

Russian Adjectives


Adjectives are used to describe nouns or pronouns. 

There are few types of Russian adjectives: 

1. Regular adjectives with hard and soft endings.

2. Soft Adjectives.

3. Comparative.

4. Superlative.


Important: Russian adjectives always depend on the gender, number and case of the noun.





Usage of Russian Adjectives


Regular Russian adjective must be in the same form of gender, number and case as the noun.

Adjectives change their endings according to the same forms of nouns.


To determine the ending of an adjective:

1. Determine the Gender of the noun

2. Check if the Noun is plural or singular

3. Determine the Case of the noun (Nominative, Accusative, Dative, Genitive, Instrumental, Prepositional)

4. Put the adjective in the same forms as the noun.



Example:


Э́то интере́сная кни́га(This is an interesting book)

интере́сная - adjective (Feminine, Singular, Nominative)

кни́га - noun (Feminine, Singular, Nominative)


Tip: In dictionaries, all Russian adjectives are presented in Nominative Masculine form (by default)




Regular Russian Adjectives


REGULAR ADJECTIVES: HARD ENDING (-ЫЙ, -ОЙ, -ИЙ)

NominativeAccusativeGenitiveDativeInstrumentalPrepositional
Masculine
(if animate)
кра́сный

кра́сный
кра́сного
кра́сного

кра́сному

кра́сным

кра́сном

Feminineкра́снаякра́снуюкра́снойкра́снойкра́снойкра́сной
Neuterкра́сноекра́сноекра́сногокра́сномукра́снымкра́сном
Plural
(if animate)
кра́сные

кра́сные
кра́сных
кра́сных

кра́сным

кра́сном

кра́сных



Regular Russian adjective must be in the same form of gender, number and case as the noun. They always come before a noun.



Example:


Э́то Кра́сная пло́щадь(This is The Red Square)

кра́сная (adjective) -  Feminine, Nominative

пло́щадь (noun) -  Feminine, Nominative


Related:

Gender of Noun



Ма́ша купи́ла кра́сное пальто́ (Masha bought a red coat)

кра́сное (adjective) - Neuter, Accusative

пальто́ (noun) - Neuter, Accusative


Related:

Past Tense



В СССР мно́го краси́вых де́вушек (There are many beautiful girls in USSR)

краси́вых (adjective) - Plural, Genitive

де́вушек (noun) - Plural, Genitive

Related:

How to make Plurals

Genitive Case



REGULAR ADJECTIVES: SOFT ENDING (-НИЙ)

NominativeAccusativeGenitiveDativeInstrumentalPrepositional
Masculine
(if animate)
си́ний

си́ний
си́него
си́него

си́нему

си́ним

си́нем

Feminineси́няяси́нююси́нейси́нейси́ней (-ею)си́ней
Neuterси́нееси́нееси́негоси́немуси́нимси́нем
Plural
(if animate)
си́ние

си́ние
си́них
си́них

си́ним

си́ними

си́них



Example:


Моя́ сумка в си́ней маши́не (My bag is in the blue car)

си́ней (adjective) - Feminine, Prepositional

маши́не (noun) - Feminine, Prepositional



Ма́ша де́лает дома́шнее зада́ние (Masha is doing homework)

дома́шнее (adjective) - Neuter, Nominative

зада́ние (noun) - Neuter, Nominative



Ма́ша гуля́ет по ночной Москве́ (Masha is walking in the night Moscow)

вече́рней (adjective) - Feminine, Dative

Москве́ (noun) - Feminine, Dative


Important: in the endings го" and го", letter "г" must be pronounced as "в"

во" instead of "ого" and во" instead of "его"



Short Russian Adjectives


Short Russian Adjectives usually follow a noun and they are used to affirm something or as an attribute.

Short adjectives have only Nominative form. Also, they must agree to the gender and number of a noun.


Important: Some Russian adjectives do not have short forms

Usually they have special endings


Adjective exceptions
-скийру́сскийRussian
-овойделово́йbusiness
-евойдождево́йrain
-нойночно́йnight
-ныйю́жныйsouth
-нийдре́внийancient



MASCULINE
(Regular)
Remove any ending
from stem
Add endingMASCULINE
(Short)
краси́вый (beautiful)ый-краси́в_
за́нятый (busy/occupied )за́нят_
дорого́й (expensive)ойдо́рог_
плохо́й (bad)плох_



Exceptions of Short Masculine Adjectives


Some adjectives in masculine forms can be hard to pronounce because of double consonant in the ending of short form. In this case you have to use the rule below.


Add "о" before"к"

Add " before"



Example:


у́зкий - narrow

у́зок

 узк 



вку́сный - tasty

вку́сен

 вкусн 



FEMININE
(Regular)
Remove any ending
from stem
Add endingFEMININE
(Short)
краси́вая (beautiful)аяакраси́ва
за́нятая (busy/occupied )занята́
интере́сная (interesting)интере́сна



NEUTER
(Regular)
Remove any ending
from stem
Add endingNEUTER
(Short)
краси́вое (beautiful)оеокраси́во
интере́сное (interesting)интере́сно
дорого́е (expensive)до́рого




REGULAR VS SHORT ADJECTIVE
REGULARSHORT
Describes general or permanent condition.Describes temporary condition.
За́нятый челове́к (Busy person)Челове́к за́нят (The person is busy)
Regular adjective за́нятый is used to describe the person in general. The person is busy permanently
(all the time)
Short adjective за́нят is used to say that the person is busy in this particular moment (not all the time)



Comparative Russian Adjectives


Comparative adjectives are used to compare one noun from another.

There are few ways to make comparative sentences:


1. Бо́лее/ме́нее (More/Less)


Adverbs бо́лее or ме́нее can be used to build comparative sentences. These adverbs are usually placed before an adjective. 

Use the structure below to make a comparative sentence. Remember, that an adjective must agree with the noun in its gender, number and case.


Examples:


Бо́лее краси́вый го́род. (A more beautiful city)

Ме́нее краси́вая улица. (A less beautiful street)


Note: Adverbs "бо́лее" and "ме́нее" can also be used with the word "чем" (than)

Мой город бо́лее краси́вый чем твой (My city is more beautiful than yours)


Related:

Russian Pronouns



2. Endings "ЕЕ" and "Е"


In English, comparative adjectives are formed with the ending "er" (simple -> simpler)

In Russian is quite similar, you form comparative adjectives with the ending "ее" or "е"

To form a comparative adjective with "ее" or "е":

1. Take the stem of an adjective.

2. Add the ending "ее" or "е" according to the rules below


Important: Gender, Number or Case do not affect comparative adjectives formed by this method.


Add ending "ее" if the last letter of an adjective stem is: б, в, м, н, п, р, л  

Otherwise add "е"



Important: If you add the ending "е", the adjective stem might have Сonsonant mutation


Examples:


ЕЕ
гру́бый (rough)грубе́е (rougher)
пра́вый (right)праве́е (righter)
люби́мый (loved)люби́мее (more loved)
интере́сный (interesting)интере́снее (more interesting)
глу́пый (stupid)глупе́е (more stupid)
му́дрый (wise)мудре́е (wiser)
бе́лый (white)беле́е (whiter)

Е
бога́тый (rich)бога́че (richer)
дорого́й (expensive)доро́же (more expensive)

EXCEPTIONS
хоро́ший (good)лу́чше (better)
плохо́й (bad)ху́же (worse)
высо́кий (tall)вы́ше (taller)
ни́зкий (low)ни́же (lower)
чи́стый (clean)чи́ще (cleaner)




Са́мый (Superlative Russian Adjective)


Superlative adjective "са́мый" means: most, very, same


Nominative
Masculineса́мый
Feminineса́мая
Neuterса́мое
Pluralса́мые


The adjective "са́мый" changes its ending by number, gender and case.

Ма́ша не спа́ла до са́мого утра́ (Masha haven't sleept until the very morning)

Байка́л са́мое глубо́кое о́зеро  (Baikal is the most deepest lake)

Я ду́маю то же са́мое (I'm thinking the same)


Related:

Russian Conjugated verbs

Gender of Russian Noun

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